Perry and van der Veen will study the interaction of light with defect dynamics in mixed conductors. This class of materials finds applications in solid-state batteries, fuel cells, electrolysis cells, gas separation membranes, photovoltaic cells, and reactors for chemical fuel synthesis. The goal is to develop mechanistic insight into these interactions by studying the process at multiple length and time scales, in realistic temperature and gas environments. The team will grow thin films by pulsed laser deposition and study their behavior with in situ optical probes, electrochemical methods, and TEM. Computational support from existing I-MRSEC members (Schleife & Ertekin) will provide further insight that can ultimately guide materials selection and design.